The history of Panama
The history of Panama
In 1501, Rodrigo de Bastidas from Seville, who had accompanied Colombus on his second voyage to the Americas. Though the poor condition of his ships forced him to turn back and return to Santo Domingo to effect repairs, de Bastidas would reach La Punta de Manzanillo on Panama’s upper Caribbean coast before having to abandon his effort.
Colombus produced hand drawn maps of Panama’s coastline and unlike de Bastidas explored Panama’s western territories. He landed at a place that is today called Almirante and proceeded along the coast to a part of the territory he would name Veragua meaning ‘to see water’. He continued his coastal journey up to the River Chagres, taking refuge in a natural bay he christened Portobelo. This site would become a key port for colonial Spain in 1597 replacing Nombre de Dios which had burned and had proven to be vulnerable to attack. Colombus ended his exlorations at Del Retrete having spent just shy of two months in what would be Panama.
Panama was part of the Spanish Empire for 300 years (1538-1821) and Panamanian fortunes fluctuated with the geopolitical importance of the isthmus to the Spanish crown. Panama’s importance would wane significantly towards the end of the 17th century and fade almost altogether by the middle of the 18th as Spanish influence and power in Europe decreased and as Spanish ships began to increasingly go round Cape Horn to reach the Atlantic. In September of 1830, under the guidance of General José Domingo Espinar, the local military commander who rebelled against the nation’s central government in response to his being transferred to another command, Panama separated from Greater Colombia and requested that Simon Bolivar take direct command of the isthmus department.
In 1520s and 1530s, the Spanish crown ordered surveys of the isthmus to determine the feasibility of such a canal, but the idea was soon abandoned. With American connivance, a plot was hatched among the handful of Panamanian landholding families to detach themselves from Colombia. The USS Nashville was dispatched to local waters around the city of Colón to deter any resistance from Bogota and so, on November 3, 1903, with United States’ encouragement and French financial support, Panama proclaimed its independence. Less than three weeks later, Panama signed the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty with the United States.
The treaty allowed for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land 10 miles wide and 50 miles long, (16 kilometers by 80 kilometers) on either side of the Panama Canal Zone. From 1903 until 1968, Panama was a constitutional democracy dominated by a commercially oriented oligarchy. During the 1950s, the Panamanian military began to challenge the oligarchy’s political hegemony. In October 1968, Dr. Arnulfo Arias Madrid, twice elected president and twice ousted by the Panamanian military, was again ousted as president by the National Guard after only 10 days in office. A military junta government was established, and the commander of the National Guard, Brig. Gen. Omar Torrijos, emerged as the principal power in Panamanian political life.
On September 7, 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal and the fourteen US army bases from the US to Panama by 1999 apart from granting the US a perpetual right of military intervention. In April 1988, President Reagan invoked the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, freezing Panamanian Government assets in U.S. banks, withholding fees for using the canal, and prohibiting payments by American agencies, firms, and individuals to the Noriega regime.
When Guillermo Endara won the Presidential elections held in May 1989, the Noriega regime annulled the election, citing massive US interference. On December 20, 1989, the United States invaded. The U.S. troops involved in Operation Just Cause achieved their primary objectives quickly, and troop withdrawal began on December 27. The US was obliged to hand control of the Panama Canal over to Panama on January 1 due to a treaty signed decades before.
Pérez Balladares ran as the candidate for a three-party coalition dominated by the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), the erstwhile political arm of the military dictatorship during the Torrijos and Norieiga years. And he became the President of Panamá. On May 2, 1999, Mireya Moscoso, the widow of former President Arnulfo Arias Madrid, defeated PRD candidate Martín Torrijos, son of the late dictator. The elections were considered free and fair. Moscoso took office on September 1, 1999.
Who was Vasco Nuñez de Balboa?
In 1475 he born in Jerez de los Caballeros or in Badajoz, Extremadura, Castile, Spain – January 21, 1519, in Acla, near Darién, Panama was a Spanish conquistador who founded the colony of Darién in Panama, the oldest still-existing European settlement in the mainland of the Americas. He was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean from America.
Balboa sailed to Hispaniola in 1501 on an expedition under Rodrigo de Bastidas and Juan de la Cosa. During this voyage, they crossed the Gulf of Urabá (on the coast of present-day Colombia), and saw the Native American village of Darién in present-day Panama. In Hispaniola, Balboa settled down as a planter. Balboa made one expedition with the ships, to the Pearl Islands in the Gulf of Panama. Balboa went to Acla to see if this governor had arrived, he was arrested in the jungle by Francisco Pizarro, tried for treason, convicted, and sentenced to death. Balboa was beheaded on January 21, 1519 in Acla, with three other companions.
Who was Rodrigo de Bastidas?
In 1460 born Rodrigo de Bastidas and died in July 28 in 1527. He was an Spanish conquistador and explorer.
Bastidas sailed to New World from Cádiz in October, 1500, with two ships, the San Antón and the Santa Maria de Gracia. He was accompanying on this voyage by Juan de la Cosa and Vasco Núñez de Balboa.
What is the name of Colon´s governor?
The governors of the province of Colon is Olgalina Quijada
Write something about the province of Colon history?
The Provincial Camera of Panama ordered that a city on the Island of Manzanillo was based and by indication of Don Mariano Arosemena the name of Columbus was put to him to the incipiente city, like tribute to the Discoverer of America, that in its last trip visited the Isthmus of Panama.
There was a time at which Columbus was admired by all. They said “the little cup of gold” by the magnificent layout, order and cleaning of its streets and avenues. But in this blooming its declivity began. The unjust delay of the attention of the necessities of the colon people, by the turn governments, caused the gradual decay from the city to whom they began to call “the lady of the Republic” and the “City that dies single”.
One discussed constantly if the city of founded the 27 of February of 1852, or if it were based the 29 of February, until some they assured that it was based the 2 of February of the same year. The historian Max Salabarría Patiño in its book “the City of Columbus in the estates of History” by Agreement no. 3 of 31 of January of 1928 of the Municipal Council of the District of Columbus declares municipal celebration the 27 of February of every year “.
What we celebrate the 3, 4, 5, 10 and 28 of November?
The 3 of november of 1903 With the encouragement of the United States, Panama proclaims itself independent from Colombia. US President Theodore Roosevelt wanted the United States to build the Panama Canal but were blocked by Colombia.
The 4 of november we celebrate the day of the Panamaian flag.
On november 5 Panamaniam are celebrating the participation of the province of Colon in the separation of Panama and Colombia, the sopport of the people of Colon was a important key for this indenpendence.
The 10 of November we are celebrating the scream of the Ville of los Santos.
On 28 of November all the panamanians are celebrating the independence of Panama with Spain.
The history of the Flag
The flag of Panama was adopted on December 20, 1903 and provisionally approved in 1904 by the Constituent Assembly. It was not definitely approved until 1925.
The blue and red stand for the Conservative Party and Liberal Party; the white stands for peace; the blue star represents the purity and honesty of the life of the country; the red star represents the authority and law in the country.
The Panamanian flag was devised by Don Loving Manuel Incarnation Torrero and was made by Doña Maria Of the Ossa de Amador.
The 20 of December of 1903 the baptism of the emblem took place and as padrinos they were chosen the Dr Gerald Ortega with Doña Lastenia de Lewis and Don Jose Agustín Arango with Doña Manuela M. of Arosemena. The blessing touched to the Rev. Fray Bernardino of the Conception Garci’a to him.
Who made the coat of Arms?
The Panamanian Coat of Arms is a heraldic symbol for the Central American nation of Panama. These arms were adopted provisionally and then definitely by the same laws that adopted the Panamanian flag.
The center section contains the Isthmus of Panama. The chief or top part of the coat of arms comprises two quarters. The top left over a field of silver a sword and a rifle.
In 1904 the arms were made official by Law 64 of 4 June of 1904 signed by the President of Assembly Dr Genaro Ortega, and sanctioned by the President of the Republic, Dr Manuel Amador Guerrero.
Our shield rests on green that symbolizes the vegetation, pointed and is placed diagonally. The center shows the Isthmus with its seas, the sun and the moon gives to sample of the hour of our independence that is the dusk of day 3. The Head, that is, the part of above, has two fields, in one the arms, sword and gun, hung in abandonment of the fights between brothers; in the left-hand side or left in the field of gules, a grub hoe and a shovel symbolizing the work. The end of the shield has in a blue field a cornucopia, emblem of wealth and in sinistra the winged wheel symbol of the prostoneware. In the superior part of the shield an eagle with the cabbeza towards the left takes a tape in the tip with our motto: “Pro Mundi Beneficio”. On the águil, in arc form, our nine provinces go nine stars representing.
Talk about Panama´s Costume (food, clothes, music and more.)
The art of Panama is the reflection of very interesting an ethnic mixture that is perceived in all its expressions, from the crafts to the folklore, happening through the architecture, music and Literature. The crafts of Panama very are varied, including indigenous works, like the molas, textiles, ceramics, masks and jewels, among other pieces. As far as the folklore, it is necessary to say that she is one of the artistic richest expressions speaking. The typical dances are very attractive by their dresses like the Chicken farmer used by the women (rich decorated), or the Tembleques, for the men, with long embroidered shirts, trousers fitted to pantorrilla and a hat montuno woven in straw. These suits can be seen in the festivales and during the carnival.
In our country, music it we can include like part of ours folclore, which is developed, mainly, in the central provinces (Coclé, Herrera, Santos and Veraguas). Expressions are folkloric typical music, the artistic dresses, dances, instruments, objects, legend, customs and the meals. Music folkloric is united to the poetry and to the popular dances, this one has been, in many cases, the source of inspiration of cultured music. In our music folkloric we distinguished vocal music, like saloma, the tamborito, tuna and mejorana, and instrumental music, like the mejorana, the point, cumbia and others.
Between the main dances that practice in Panama we have:
Gran Diablo: It badly shows the fight of ultratomb between the good and, represented in the figures of the San Miguel Angel and the Devil, respectively. The
Pajarilla: It is cultivated by the inhabitants of San Jose of the Tables. It constitutes one of the celebrations of Corpus.
Montezuma: It is an act that has had use in the populations of Azuero, in special in Villa of the Saints; the same one has two styles:
Other dances are the one of the Cucuas, Dirty Devils and Devils of Mirrors, among others.
The Panamanian food consist in rice with chicken, tamales, rice with coconut , they like eating fish, and other seafood, bollos.
Citar este texto en formato APA: _______. (2013). WEBSCOLAR. The history of Panama. https://www.webscolar.com/the-history-of-panama. Fecha de consulta: 8 de agosto de 2020.