Republic of Peru
The new sol (plural: nuevos soles) (S/.) is the currency of Peru. It is subdivided into 100 céntimos. The ISO 4217 currency code is PEN. The name is a return to that of Peru’s historic currency, the sol in use from the 19th century to 1985. Although the derivation of sol is from the Latin solidus, the name means sun in Spanish. There is a continuity therefore with the old Peruvian inti, which was named after Inti, the Sun God of the Incas.
Peru is a multilingual nation. Its official languages are Spanish and, in the zones where they are predominant, Quechua, Aymara, and other aboriginal languages. A considerable number of languages were once spoken on the northern coast and in the northern Andes, but other than some endangered pockets of Quechua in the northern highlands (Cajamarca, Inkawasi-Cañaris and Chachapoyas). It is known that the number of languages that were used in Peru easily surpasses 300; some observers speak of 700.
Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.
Lima is the capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, on a coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. It forms a contiguous urban area with the seaport of Callao.
In Peru’s rural areas, the way people dress makes an important distinction, as a result of the blend of pre-Hispanic influences with the European clothing that the natives were forced to wear during the colonial era. The traditional Inca anacu was transformed by the local women into the brightly-colored and multi-layered petticoats known as polleras. Depending on the region, a black skirt is decorated with a belt which can come in a variety of colors and is decorated with flowers in the northern Piura highlands or a brightly-hued woolen lliclla in Chiclayo, further south.
TRADITIONAL MUSIC AND DANCE
Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish and African roots. In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely from region to region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments. Spanish conquest brought the introduction of new instruments such as the guitar and the harp, as well as the development of crossbred instruments like the charango. Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, danza de tijeras and huayno.
Fiestas are a part of life throughout Peru. Any religious or pre-Christian feast day is an excuse for live music, wearing elaborate costumes and consuming vast quantities of alcohol. Sometimes the fiestas last for days or weeks. Sometimes they involve throwing water, flour or other missiles at each other. There are numerous regional festivals. The most notable is Carnival week that usually takes place in February. The costumes depict mythological themes or poke fun at the Spanish who tried to wipe out the Indian culture.
Peruvian cuisine is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking. Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, humitas, and pachamanca. Because of the variety of climates within Peru, a wide range of plants and animals are available for cooking. Peruvian cuisine has recently received acclaim due to its diversity of ingredients and techniques.
___________.WEBSCOLAR. Republic of Peru. http://www.webscolar.com/republic-of-peru. Fecha de consulta: 4 de marzo de 2019.