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Módulo de Inglés de V y VI año Ciencias

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Primera Parte

Exercise1. Complete these sentences with the right words. Pregnancy, parents, alcohol, effects, monoxide, nicotine, smoking, chemical, tar.

Example:

The more you drink, the greater the effects are

1. Prolonged, heavy use of alcohol can lead to addiction.

2. Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome.

3. Children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk than other children of becoming alcoholic.

4. Each year 350,000 Americans die prematurely from effects of smoking.

5. Three of the most damaging chemical components of cigarettes are nicotine, monoxide and carbon.

6. Nicotine alters the structure and function of the brain.

7. The inhaled carbon tar stays in the body for three or four hours.

Exercise2. Underline the correct form of the verbs

The amount of carbon monoxide in the blood of no-makers (double/doubles) in a room filled with cigarette smoke.

1. Young teens also (drink / drinks) alcohol irresponsibly.

2. Alcoholism and poor nutrition can (lead / leads) to permanent damage to vital organs.

3. Children fetal alcohol syndrome may (suffer / suffers) from mental retardation and other irreversible physical abnormalities.

4. Almost a million teenagers (take / takes) up smoking every year.

5. One cigarette (speed / Speeds) up your heartbeat.

6. Nicotine, are and carbon monoxide (are/ is) three of the most damaging chemical components of cigarette.

Exercise3. Translate the following lecture.

WATER, IN OUR PLANET

Todos los seres vivientes deben poseer una adecuada fuente de agua. En muchas células, el agua es el fluido en que la mayoría de loas sustancia se disuelven. Solo la materia desperdiciada y los nutrientes que son solubles en agua pueden pasar y salir de las células vivientes. Acerca de 2 tercios del cuerpo humano es hecho de agua. El alimento es diluido en él y es llevado a través del cuerpo para así ser utilizado para energía y para la construcción de las partes del cuerpo. El agua deja el cuerpo por medio de sudoración, vapor de los pulmones y a través de la orina. A medida que el cuerpo crece y se reconstruye, el agua es incorporada en los tejidos.

El agua cubre más de las ¾ partes de la superficie terrestre. Nuestro planeta es el único en el sistema solar donde la temperatura es tal que la mayoría del agua de la tierra está en forma líquida. Esta es la razón principal de porque la vida, como la conocemos, puede existir en la tierra. Muchos de la vida vegetal en el océano son hierba marina y algas marinas. Toda la cadena alimenticia del océano esta basada en plantas verdes.

De Acuerdo a algunos científicos, más del 90% de la fotosíntesis en la tierra es llevada a cabo en ellas. Todos los animales marinos son adaptados tomar el oxígeno y tomar el alimento que necesitan del agua en que viven. Mariscos es una de las nutritivas fuentes de energía. Por lo tanto, gran esfuerzo debe hacerse para controlar y prevenir la contaminación, ya que afecta directamente el ambiente y la salud humana.

Exercise 4. Use true to the correct answer and false to the incorrect answer.

Example:

True water is the fluid inmost cells.

1. True Water leaves the body as perspiration from the skin.

2. False one third of the Earth’s surface is covered by water.

3. False Seafood is a poor source of energy.

4. False Two thirds of the human body is made water.

5. False As the body grows, less water goes into the tissues.

Exercise 5. Fill the Blanc spaces using the equivalents words from the list: Algae, living, fluid, perspiration, nutritive.

Example:

1. Liquid: fluid

2. Sweat: perspiration

3. Nutritious: nutritive

4. Alive: living

5. Seaweed: algae

Exercise 6. Match the words with their definitions.

Example:

Cell waste liquid which is discharged from the body.

Tissue breathing organs in the chest of man and other animals

Lungs outer covering of the body.

Skin ass of cells in an animal body.

Urine microscopic unit of living matter.

Exercise7. Translate these ideas in Spanish.

Example:

Dirty water is probably the world’s most serous pollution problem.

El agua sucia es probablemente el más serio problema de polución mundial.

1. To make thing worse.

Para hacer las cosas peores.

2. Until recently, precious supplies of pure water were treated as though they were unlimited.

Hasta hace poco tiempo, fuentes preciosas de agua pura fueron tratadas como si fueran ilimitadas.

3. An estimated 90% of sewage in developing countries is discharged into rivers lakes, and seas without any treatment.

Un estimado de 90% de aguas residuales en ciudades en desarrollo son descargadas en ríos, lagos y océanos sin ser tratadas.

4. According to the World Health Organization.

De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud. OMS

Exercise 8. Translate the words below, then find the English meaning of the in the puzzle.

Example:

Represa: Dam

Sucio: Dirty

Gota: drop

Tierra: earth

Prevenir: prevent

Lluvia: rain

Alga marina: seaweed

Piel: skin

Tejido: tissue

Gusano: worm

Bibliography

Golzman, Silvana Nature & enviroment. Level one Richmond Publishing. Ediciones Santillana, Argentina.

English Dictionary, Internet.

 

SEGUNDA PARTE

Exercise 1. Translate the lecture.

FOREST AND HEALTH

El bosque tropical es muy importante económicamente para el mejoramiento de la crianza de plantas. Una especie del maíz salvaje encontrado en los arbolados mexicanos es resistan a cinco de los siete virus más importantes del mundo.

El bosque es también fuentes de los productos farmacéuticos usados para combatir el cáncer y otras serias enfermedades del hombre. La planta litorina del bosque de Madagascar produce una droga que ha sido probada satisfactoriamente en el tratamiento de leucemia del linfocito. La corteza de prunus africanum ahora es importante en el comercio mundial. Es un tratamiento farmacéutico para los desórdenes de fosfato.

Nuestro conocimiento sobre las plantas del bosque tropical es limitado, pero puede ser mejorar con próximas investigaciones.

Exercise 2. Choose the right option

Example

important

Forest is considered (______________ unimportant) sources of new medicines.

1. We have a (vast – limited) knowledge about tropical forest plants.

2. The periwinkle plant is very successful for the treatment of (prostate disorders – lymphocyte – leukemia).

Exercise #3. Mach the words.

Example:

Bam investigación

Danger maíz

Bark conquistar

Diseases recurso

Breeding derrumbar

Knowledge litorina

Collapse reproducción

Periwinkle Prohibir

Conquer peligro

Resource enfermedades

Corn corteza

Research conocimiento.

Exercise 4. Complete the table using the Spanish or English meaning of the words.

WordsMeaning
WitnessTestigo
TradeComercio
StageEstado, Etapa
HerramientasTools
BosqueForest
SourcesFuente
EnfermedadesDiseases
VirusVirus

Exercise 5. Match causes and effects.

CAUSES EFFECTS

Example:

1. The use of CFCs 2 Pollution of air

2. Urban growth 3 Deforestation

3. Cutting down trees 1 deterioration in the ozone layer

4. Excessive use of fertilizers 4 erosion and desertification

Exercise 6. Translate the lecture.

A través de la historia de la humanidad han ocurrido cambios en la manera como el hombre valora el medio ambiente.

En el primer hombre compitió para el alimento y el abrigo con otras especies. Cuando él comenzó a ganar control sobre el fuego y conquistó el bosque, él podría explotar recursos más eficientemente y satisfacer sus necesidades sin causar la extinción de las especies. Luego, él mejoró las herramientas e hizo un uso mejor de recursos.

La primera evidencia clara de las consecuencias para el medio ambiente comenzó en esta etapa. Mientras que los habitantes humanos primitivos llegaron en América, algunas clases de mamíferos desaparecieron. El hombre moderno podría luchar en términos iguales con la naturaleza. En este período, los naturalistas estudiaron los diversos organismos y procesos en naturaleza sin ningún interés en la interacción entre el hombre y los ecosistemas.

Los problemas ambientales tales como erosión, desertificación y contaminación debido al uso excesivo de fertilizantes fueron originados probablemente en Grecia antigua. Fueron agravados con la revolución industrial cuando el aceite, el carbón y el gas natural fueron explotados como nuevas fuentes de energía que deterioraban la calidad del agua y del aire. Más adelante, la construcción de presas, el desarrollo de las plantas de energía atómica, el crecimiento urbano y la utilización creciente de nuevas tecnologías pusieron en peligro totalmente la naturaleza.

El hombre casi ha causado un derrumbamiento ambiental. Él ha provocado la pérdida sostenida de biodiversidad, el agotamiento de los recursos energéticos, contaminación del agua, del aire y de la tierra, la deterioración de la capa de ozono y un cambio en clima global. Pero ahora mucha gente ha realizado que el hombre es parte de la naturaleza, y que el futuro de nuestro planeta dependerá del comportamiento del hombre hoy.

Exercise 7.Answer the following words about above lecture.

Example:

1. When did man begin control over nature?

When he began to gain control over fire.

2. What was the attitude of modern man towards nature?

The modern man fight on equal terms with nature, this was his attitude.

3. When did pollution become more harmful to environment?

The pollution became more harmful when the man started using fertilizers in the Ancient Greek.

4. What contributed to aggravate the situation?

The Industrial Revolution contributed to aggravate the situation when they used oil carbon and natural gas as a new source of energy.

Exercise 8. Translate the lecture.

En un invernadero, la energía ligera penetra y baja sobre las plantas. Cuando golpea una superficie, la energía ligera se convierte en energía térmica y se escapa en la atmósfera. De la misma manera la tierra es calentada por el sol y se refresca irradiando energía térmica (radiación infrarroja) hacia el espacio. Estos gases calentados entonces irradian parte de la energía que regresa a la tierra.

Este proceso, llamado el “efecto del invernadero”, absorbe la mayoría de radiación dañosa antes de que alcance la superficie de la tierra, creando un ambiente para toda la vida. Sin los gases del invernadero, la temperatura de la troposfera de la tierra sería bajo cero. Las medidas indican un aumento en los niveles de los gases del invernadero (bióxido de carbono, metano, óxido nitroso, vapor de agua y clorofluorocarbonatos) en la atmósfera. Los científicos refieren esto como el “efecto realzado del invernadero”. Este aumento es principalmente debido a las actividades humanas tales como quemarse de combustibles fósiles, de la tala de árboles, del uso de fertilizantes en agricultura, de la descomposición de la basura y del uso de refrigeradores y de acondicionadores de aire.

Esto puede conducir a un calentamiento global, que podría cambiar el equilibrio atmosférico de la tierra con efectos en regiones polares. Los casquillos de hielo derretirían levantando la altura de los océanos del mundo y el producir inundaciones en las áreas más bajas del mundo.

Exercise 9. Answer the questions.

Example:

1. Is the greenhouse effect a natural or man made phenomenon?

It is a natural phenomenon.

2. Why is it called greenhouse?

It called greenhouse because it similar a green house where it absorbed most of the radiation (the harmful one)

3. What might the greenhouse effect lead to?

This effect may lead to global warming.

4. Which are the causes of global warming?

The Ice caps in Polar Regions would be melting and might be flood on the lower regions.

Bibliography

1. Golzman, Silvana. Nature & environment. Leved two Richmond Publishing, Ediciones Santillana, Argentina. Azar, Betty.

English Basic Grammar 2nd ed. Editorial Production, New York, United State of America

2. English Dictionary

3. Internet.

 

TERCERA PARTE

Exercise 1. Climate Change

Answer the questions

1. What does global warning mean?

Global warning is a term used for the rise of the average temperature on Earth

2. What does greenhouse effect mean?

The effect of greenhouse means that the radiation of earth is being trap in earth rising the temperature of earth

3. Why are greenhouse gases dangerous?

Because they can rise the temperature of earth and produce the effect of global warming

4. What changes have occurred since the beginning of 20th century?

During the 20th century the global temperature increased, by the melting of glaciers and the expansion of ocean water due to warmer ocean temperatures.

5. What consequences may global warming bring?

Will turn earth into a sauna, will be at highest temperatures, so it, be spread of tropical diseases and insects.

Exercise # 2. Read the text again and complete these ideas.

1. The ocean water has expanded because the ice caps are melting because the high temperatures.

2. Some cold countries will probably became warmer

3. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane are some of the greenhouse gasses

4. Global warning is produced by changing the agriculture and industrial practices

5. Changes in agriculture and industrial processes have increased the levels of the natural green house gasses.

Exercise #3. Greenhouse effect.

Select the correct answer.

Example.

Climate change affects

a. All Earth species b. Only Artic species

1. The concentration of greenhouse gases started to increase.

a during the Industrial Revolution b. during World War II

2. Greenhouse gases make

a. the Earth gain heat b. the Earth lose heat

3. Greenhouse gases

a. exist naturally in the atmosphere b. result from human activities

4. By 2100 global temperatures may go up by

a. 5 C b. 3C

5. If global warming occurs

a. the level of the sea will fall b. the level of sea will rise

6 Products, behaviors, policies that do not damage our world are called

a. friendly environmentally b. environmentally friendly.

7. The phrase greenhouse effect was coined in

a. 1927 b. 1827

8. Human activities that are leading to an increase in the level of greenhouse gases are

a. industrial chemicals, rubbish dumps b. tree-planting

Exercise. #4 Vocabulary

Find the opposites

1. Heat Cold

2. Increase Decrease

3. Beneficial Harmful

4. Heat Cold

5. Artificial Natural

6. Gain Lose

7. Warm Cool

8. Decrease Increase

9. Drought Flood

10. Flood Drought

Exercise #5. Find synonyms

1. Information data

2. To change turn into

3. To rise increase

4. Spread extend

5. Climate weather

6. Pollute destruction

7. Power energy

8. Heat hotter

9. Livestock farming

10. To gain to receive

Exercise #6. Translate the words into English.

1. Fertilizantes fertilizer

2. derretir melt

3. superficie surface

4. carbón carbon

5. madera wood

6. incertidumbre uncertainty

7. metano methane

8. beneficio benefit

9. propagación spread

10. basurero dump

Bibliography

1. Golzman, Silvana. Nature & environment. Leved two Richmond Publishing, Ediciones Santillana, Argentina. Azar, Betty. English Basic Grammar 2nd ed. Editorial Production, New York, United State of America.

2. English Dictionary

3. Internet.

 

VI AÑO

PRIMERA PARTE.

Exercise #1 Reading

Answer the questions.

1. What is Agroecology?

Agroecology is a scientific discipline that uses ecological theory to study, design, manage and evaluate agricultural systems that are productive but also resource conserving.

2. What considers agroecological research?

Agroecological research considers interactions of all important biophysical, technical and socioeconomic components of farming systems and regards these systems as the fndamentals units of study, where mineral cycles, energy transfomations, biological processes and socioeconomic relationships are analyzed as a whole in a interdisciplinary fashion.

3. Are there different types of agriculture?

Yes there are different types of agriculture the productive agriculture and the modern agriculture

4. How are conventional and organic farming different?

Conventional farming used the local resources while minimizing the negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts and organic farming is a new technology from the industrial countries for taking care of agriculture productive lands.

5. What requires to put agroecological technologies into practices?

To do this we requires technological innovations, agriculture policy changes, socioeconomic changes, but understand the complex long term interactions among resources, people and their environment.

Exercise #2 Ticks (X) the correct option.

1. Agroecology

A. Integrates old and new agricultural knowledge. X

B. Uses old agricultural knowledge.

C. Uses only new agricultural knowledge.

2. Agroecology

A. Uses a considerable amount of chemical to kill pests. X

B. Does not control pest

C. Does not make use of chemicals to kill pest.

3. Conventional agricultural practice

A. Has not had any adverse social or economic results.

B. Has not always benefited the environment or farmers. X

C. Has always protected the environment and farmers.

Exercise #3. Identifying topic sentences. Finding the topic sentences of the reading (exercise #1) will give you the main idea.

The topic sentence is normally the first sentence. But be careful¡ sometimes the first sentences is an introduction or transition to the topic sentence.

Other times, the topic sentence comes at the end of the paragraph. Quickly read the first few sentences and decide which one gives the main ideas.

Agroecology is a scientific discipline that uses ecological theory to study, design, manage and evaluate agricultural systems that are productive but also resource conserving.

Agroecology in concerned with the maintenance of a productive agriculture that sustains yields and optimizes the use of local resources while minimizing the negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts of modern technology.

The agroecological approach does just this because it is more sensitive to the complexities of local agriculture, and has a broad performance criterion which includes properties of ecological sustainability, food security, economic viability, resource conservation and social equity, as well as increased production.

Agroecology provides a framework by applying ecological theory to the management of agroecosystems according to specific resources and socioeconomic realities, and by providing a methodology to make the required interdisciplinary connections.

Exercise 4. Countable and uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns

Example. farm-farmers, consumer-consumers

Uncountable nouns

Examples: water, milk, coffee.

Divide the following into two groups:

Countable and uncountable. Follow the examples

NounscountableUncountable
CountryCountry
PleasurePleasure
BookBook
ToleranceTolerance
PeoplePeople
Modernitymodernity
Computercomputer

Bibliography

1. Golzman, Silvana. Nature & environment. Leved two Richmond Publishing, Ediciones Santillana, Argentina. Azar, Betty. English Basic Grammar 2nd ed. Editorial Production, New York, United State of America.

2. English Dictionary

3. Internet.

 

SEGUNDA PARTE

Exercise #1. Reading.

El alcoholismo es una dependencia en el alcohol caracterizado por ansiar (una necesidad fuerte de beber), pérdida de control (no pudiendo parar de beber a pesar de desearlo), dependencia física, los sintomas de ausencia y la tolerancia (dificultad de aumento de convertirse embriagarse).

El alcoholismo es un problema tratable de por vida que termina a menudo en la muerte, generalmente por el hígado, pancreático, o enfermedad del riñón, hemorragia interna, deterioración del cerebro, el envenenamiento por alcohol y suicidio. El consumo del alcohol por una madre embarazada puede también conducir al síndrome fetal del alcohol en el niño no nacido, a una enfermedad incurable y perjudicial.

También, el alcoholismo es un factor que contribuye a gran cantidad en los accidentes del vehículo de motor (MVA), la violencia y asalta, también como una causa principal dependencia del alcohol de los problemas neurológicos y de la otros problemas médicos (ej, cirrosis, etc)

La dependencia del alcohol puede ser más difícil de romperse y considerablemente más dañina que la mayoría de las sustancias adictivas. Los síntomas físicos al dejar el alcohol se ven similares en severidad a los experimentados cuando se está dejando la heroína.

1. Translate the reading using a dictionary.

Exercise 2. Make a list of effects alcoholism can bring.

1. Addictive a strong need to drink
2. loss of control (being unable to stop drinking despite a desire to do so)
3. physical dependence
4. withdrawal symptoms
5. tolerance (increasing difficulty of becoming drunk).

Cerebral cortex

cerebelum

Frontal lobe

Hypothalamus

Parietal lobe

Thalamus

Corpus Calisoum

Temporal lobe

Occipital lobe

Hipocampal regions

[image]

Schematic drawing of the human brain, showing regions vulnerable to alcoholism-related abnormalities.

Exercise3. Complete these sentences with the right words.

chemical, tar, smoking, nicotine, monoxide, effects, alcohol, parents, pregnancy.

1. The more you drink, the greater the effects are.

2. Each year young people die prematurely from effects of alcohol

3. Three of the most damaging components of cigarettes are nicotine, monoxide and carbon.

4. smoking alters the structure and function of the brain.

5. The inhaled carbon tar stays in the body for three or four hours.

6. Prolonged, heavy use of nicotine can lead to addiction.

7. Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome.

8. Children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk than other children of becoming alcoholic.

Exercise #4. Complete the sentence with the right form of the verbs.

1. The amount of carbon monoxide in the blood of nonsmokers (double / doubles) in a room filled with cigarette smoke.

2. Young teens also (drink / drinks) alcohol irresponsibly.

3. Alcohol and poor nutrition can (lead / leads) to permanent damage to vital organs.

4. Children with fetal syndrome may (suffer/suffers) from mental retardation and other irreversible physical abnormalities.

5. Almost a million teenagers (take/takes) up smoking every year.

Exercise #5. Error analysis.

Example: They comes by train (verb form)

They come by train.

1. There are a little students in class. (Quantifier)

There are little students in class

2. I am usually having a shower when I get up. (Verb tense)

I am usually have a shower when I get up.

3. He coming to the concert. (Verb from)

He will come to the concert

4. do you coming to school on Sunday. (Verb form)

Do you went to school on Sunday

5. The festival has always music from different cultures. (Position of adverb.)

The music festival has always different cultures

6. It started in Monday. (Preposition).

It started on Monday

7. They were playing chess at this moment. (Time phrase and tense agreement)

At this moment they are playing chess.

8. Who did came to the party? (Verb form)

Who did come to the party?

9 They are used to get together at the end of the year. (Verb form)

They will be used to get together at the end of the year.

10. The poster are in the wall. (Place preposition)

The poster is in the wall

Exercise #6. Adverbials of place say where something happens.

Example:. in Juan Diaz, inside, here, there, opposite the cinema, at the school, abroad, at home.

Identify the adverbials of place. Pay attention to their position in the sentence.

1. Have you ever studied abroad?

2. The idea of the “melting pot” is no longer popular in Canada.

3. There are many different races, cultures and languages in Panama City.

4. I’ve never been overseas, but I’d love to go.

5. I’m having a party at my school tonight.

Bibliography

1. Fidalgo, Adela y cols. Made Easy. Bachillerato- Richmond Publishing. Ediciones Santillana.

2. Golzman, Silvana. Nature & environment. Level three. Richmond Publishing. Ediciones Santillana. Argentina.

3. English Dictionary,

4. Internet.

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___________.WEBSCOLAR. Módulo de Inglés de V y VI año Ciencias. http://www.webscolar.com/modulo-de-ingles-de-v-y-vi-ano-ciencias. Fecha de consulta: 3 de abril de 2019.

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