The football playing field is rectangular in shape, measuring 100 yd 91.4 m) long and 53.5 yd (48.9 m) wide. At both ends of the 100 yard dimension, white lines called goal lines mark off the entrances to the end zones.
Each team defends one end zone. A team must carry, pass, or kick the ball into the 10 yd (9m) end zone on the opponents’ half of the field to score. Lines parallel to the end zones cross the field at 5 yd (4.5 m) intervals. These lines give the field a resemblance to a large gridiron. Another set of lines, known as the sidelines, runs along both sides of the field. In addition, two rows of lines, called hash marks, run parallel to the sidelines. The hash marks are 53 ft 4 in (16.3 m) from each sideline in college and high school football, and 70 ft 9 in (21.6 m) from each sideline in the National Football League (NFL).
Each play must begin on or between the hash marks. Before each play, the officials place the ball either between the hash marks or on the hash mark closest to the end of the previous play. Situated in the middle of the rear line of each end zone are goalposts, consisting of a 10 ft (3 m) vertical pole topped by a horizontal crossbar from which two vertical upright posts extend. In college and professional football, the posts are 18 ft 6 in (about 5.6 m) apart.
The football consists of an inflated rubber bladder encased in a leather or rubber cover. The ball is an extended spheroid, having a circumference of 28.5 in (72.4 cm) around the long axis and 21.25 in (54 cm) around the short axis. It weights between 14 and 15 oz. (397 and 425 g).
Football, outdoors game, played by two opposing teams with a ball of various types, usually an inflated bladder or rubber bag in a leather or rubber cover, spherical or ellipsoidal in shape. The object of the game is to score points by carrying the ball across the goal line of the opponents, or by kicking the ball through or over the goal of the opponents.
The principal types of football played today are American football; association football, or Soccer; Canadian football; Australian football; Gaelic football; and Rugby football. Touch football is an informal variation of the game, with any number of players and using any kind of field. Instead of being tackled, the ball carrier is stopped by being touched.
The football is considerer like sporting more popular of the world. This virile sport born in England and for that reason the man cut, and for the requirement of a great vigor and energy of who practice this sport, it had in his origin of the aversion of the puritan, who was showing allergy to the exercise, also those of violent players; but form the beginning of the century (XIX) it came back in a modern style.
At the beginning they play with the originals rules, that for sure it was so limited and the development was too much violets that was producing with frequency injuries to the players, much of these are very series an so fatally, but more later they introduce reform and innovation lake the “dribbling” which produce a real positive revolution in a development and practice of this sport.
A game of football is divided into four periods, known as quarters, each consisting of 15 minutes of playing time. The first two periods constitute the first half; the second two comprise the second half. Between the halves, a rest period, usually lasting about 15 minutes, is permitted the players, who may leave the field. The teams change halves of the field at the end of each quarter. The clocks stop at the end of each quarter and at certain other times, when particular events occur or when designated by the officials.
The object of the game is to score more points than the opposing team within the regulation playing time. In college football, a game can end in a tie if both teams have scored the same number of points at the end of regulation time.
In case of a tie in an exhibition or regular reason professional game, the teams play an overtime period, known as sudden death, in which the first team to score is declared the winner. If neither team has scored at the end of this 15 minute overtime period, then the tie is allowed to stand.
In professional playoff games no ties are allowed, and the teams play until one scores. A team scores a touchdown when one of its players carries the ball into the opposing team’s end zone or catches a pass in the end zone. A touchdown is worth 6 points. After a team has scored a touchdown, it tries for an extra-point conversion.
This is an opportunity to score an additional one or two point with no time elapsing off the game clock. In college football, the offensive team lines up 3 yd (2.7 m) from the goal line of the opponents and passes, kicks, or runs with the ball. A running or passing conversion in which the ball crosses the goal line counts for 2 points.
___________.WEBSCOLAR. Football Reading. http://www.webscolar.com/football-reading. Fecha de consulta: 12 de abril de 2019.